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11. Henry Beaufort 1
Arms: Gules, two lions passant guardant Or, on a chief Azure the Virgin ducally crowned sitting on a throne issuant from the chief on her dexter arm the infant Jesus and in her sinister hand a sceptre all Or ( Lincoln ); impaled by France quartering England with a border compony Argent and Azure ( Beaufort ).

SOURCE/NOTES & CREDITS: Blazon and illustration for background for the diocese of Lincoln, England is from the Wikipedia article on this diocese. The arms date to at least the time of Hugh de Wells, Bishop of Lincoln during the time of the Magna Carta (1215) in which he is mentioned by name. The Beaufort arms date to 1396-1397 when Henry and his siblings were legitimized by both King Richard II and then by Pope Boniface IX on 9 Feb 1397. The text is adapted from the Wikipedia article on the Diocese of the of Lincoln, from “Mistress of the Monarchy”, Alison Weir, 2009, and “Heraldica Collegii Cardinalium”, Vol. I, Michael Francis McCarthy, 2002.

John Buckingham was Bishop of Lincoln from 1363 to 1398. It seems very likely he performed the marriage ceremony soon after 13 Jan 1396 which fell within the Octave of the Epiphany in Lincoln Cathedral of Lady Katherine Swynford (2nd marriage) and John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (3rd marriage).

Due to King Richard II being a widower, the new Duchess of Lancaster became for a short while First Lady of England until the King remarried. King Richard had liked her as Lady Swynford and had made her a Lady of the Garter (LG) in 1387. Post legitimization Henry Beaufort and his siblings almost immediately got titles, promotions and offers of advantageous marriages.

Henry Beaufort was the second child and second son of John of Gaunt, a Plantagenet and Duke of Lancaster ( 3rd son of Edward III ), and his mistress Lady Katherine Swynford, née de Roët. Born out of wedlock circa. 1375 he grew up to become a literate but minor cleric in the church.

Legitimated he was appointed Dean of Wells Cathedral in Somerset in Jan 1397 at age 20, and then ordained a Deacon around Apr 1397, and shortly thereafter appointed Chancellor of Oxford University.

He was named bishop of Lincoln by the King on 27 Feb 1398 at age 21. Old Bishop Buckingham resisted being moved until 12 July 1398 when he retired to Canterbury, dying in 1399. Henry was consecrated as Bishop of Lincoln on 14 July 1398. He remained Bishop of Lincoln until 1404.

Bishop Beaufort was appointed Lord Chancellor of England in 1403 by Henry IV his half-brother. He resigned as Chancellor in 1404 when he was appointed Bishop of Winchester 19 Nov 1404.

He was again appointed Lord Chancellor of England 1413 by Henry V his half nephew But he resigned the position of Chancellor again in 1417.

He was appointed for the third time as Lord Chancellor under Henry VI in 1424 And Beaufort resigned the position for the third time in 1426.

On 24 May 1426 Bishop Beaufort was appointed as a Cardinal by Pope Martin V.

Cardinal Beaufort continued to be active in English politics and died on 11 April 1447

The artwork is an interpretation by John Hamilton Gaylor

2021 0604

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